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Bible Overview is a wonderful resource for anyone interested in Bible study. Each month we feature a book of the Bible (in order) by Bible scholar and lecturer, Mary Jane Chaignot.

This month we will look at the non-canonical book entitled, “The Wisdom of Solomon.”

If you want to read some of the history previous to this selection, you can find the earlier books in our archives.

The Bible Time-Line is another quick reference for locating individuals or specific books. We encourage readers to share their Bible study success stories on this site. Email us at overview@biblewise.com to be included on next month's site.

The Wisdom of Solomon, or The Book of Wisdom

Authorship and Date
Purpose
Structure and Summary of Contents
Audience
Influence on Theology

Authorship and Date
In the OT, Solomon is known as a most esteemed man of wisdom. It comes as no surprise, then, that someone wanted to credit him with the authorship of this book of wisdom. The very title of this book describes its content and presumed author. Such an attribution simply gave the book more credibility and probably assured its success.

Nonetheless, by the first century people were already questioning the authorship of the book because of the author’s use of OT passages from the Septuagint, which wasn’t written until 300 BCE – long after Solomon’s demise. To be fair, however, the author never really used Solomon’s name anywhere in his writings, but he does speak in the first person as though he were Solomon.

Scholars do agree, however, that the author was definitely not Solomon because the style of the book has little in common with the pithy sayings from the Book of Proverbs. However, scholars agree that the real author is totally anonymous. In fact, some scholars refer to this as the Book of Wisdom because the use of Solomon’s name in the title was merely a literary device. 

Despite some variations in writing style, most scholars now think the book was written by one individual who remains anonymous. Nonetheless, some assumptions about the author can be made. He was a Hellenistic Jew, probably living in Egypt (more than likely in Alexandria because that city was well known for its Hellenization of Judaism -- the blending of Jewish and Greek cultures).  Alexandria was the birthplace of the Septuagint (a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible). Our author would have been familiar with these traditions. He was equally proficient in Greek philosophy and the Jewish scriptures (even though he modified some of the Biblical stories to suit his purposes). He valued his faith and held to the belief that God’s sovereignty was what mattered.

The book was originally written in Greek and, because it relies upon OT stories in the Septuagint, it was probably written somewhere between 250BCE-50CE. Scholars think the book was written in Egypt, possibly Alexandria.

Purpose
The book was probably written to encourage Jews living in the Diaspora, those who weren’t living in Israel. The author tries to make Biblical traditions relevant to Jews in new situations. He realizes that they live in a secular culture and how difficult it is for them to maintain their culture. So his intention is to highlight God’s concern for man. He uses wisdom teachings to make known deep truths about God as revealed in Bible stories and texts. His main point is to press the validity of Jewish faith for contemporary times. It is an ongoing issue for persons of faith in every age.

Structure and Summary of Contents
The book can be divided in many ways, although its themes aren’t always apparent. Nonetheless, scholars have attempted to make some sense out of the structure of the book. Unlike other wisdom writings (like Proverbs with its pithy sayings), this book makes a very sustained argument. Based on Greek rhetorical styles, the author used a variety of forms to make his theological point. These include Solomon’s monologue, a letter, a thoughtful treatise on man’s ultimate fate, a discussion on the origin and character of idolatry, and a conversation on the question of authority.

The first section (chapters 1-5) contrasts the godly with the ungodly, and the opening line invites the “rulers of the earth” to seek justice. The godly are righteous and live in communion with God, while the ungodly make a covenant with death.  The ungodly live only for this moment, never thinking about the life to come or how to gain immortality. In their pursuit of evil, they oftentimes torment and oppress the godly, but in due time, God will right all wrongs. Eventually, the ungodly will be punished and put to shame.

The second section (chapters 6-9) is all about the origin, qualities, and deeds of Wisdom. This is where the author speaks as though he is Solomon. He begins by recalling how he prayed for Wisdom and how God responded. He concludes this section by extolling the many benefits of having Wisdom. He uses many OT characters to further his point, but some of these stories are modified to suit his purposes.

In the third section, he presents various contrasts between the Egyptians and the Israelites. The Egyptians are a classic example of the ungodly; the Israelites are God’s people. One is punished; the other is protected. For example, take God’s provision of water. It turned into blood for the Egyptians, but flowed from a rock for the Israelites. (It should be noted that there is no mention at all of any of the grumbling or apostasy issues that plagued the Israelites throughout their wilderness experience. That doesn’t fit in with the author’s main point.)  Those who follow Wisdom are blessed; those who don’t follow are punished. 

The next section focuses even more on idolatry, specifically the worship of animals. While it may be that the ungodly are finding their way to the Creator, the bottom line is that they are taking way too long. They confuse the creation and the Creator.  He then launches into a large discourse on the making of idols and how ridiculous it is. Man, who is himself a creation, tries to fashion an idol that he carved out of wood. This idol is unable to see, hear, breathe, or move. Yet people worship it! The very idea is ludicrous. He mocks the person setting out in a ship who prays to an idol that is weaker than the ship. In trying to understand the origin of idolatry, the author comes up with two scenarios: maybe a father lost a young son and carved a remembrance of that son. Or maybe people wanted to have a nearby image of a distant king. From there, things simply got out of hand. By the time of the Egyptians, idol worship was alive and well. They worshiped gods that could not even stand on their own.

In the last section, he returns to more contrasts between God’s treatment of the Egyptians and his people. Needless to say, things don’t go well for the Egyptians.  Because they worshiped animals, God sent a plague of frogs. In contrast, God provided quail for the Israelites in the wilderness – a delicacy to satisfy their hunger. (Again, there is no mention of their grumbling about wanting to return to Egypt.) Because of the animal worship, God tormented the Egyptians with locusts.  In contrast, when the Israelites were punished with snakes, God provided a resolution by which they could be saved. The Egyptians received no such help.  Lightning and hail came down from heaven to punish the Egyptians. But manna came down from heaven to feed the Israelites. And when darkness came upon the land (and terrified the Egyptians), bright light shone upon the Israelites. The death of the firstborn sons only affected the Egyptians; the angel passed over the houses of the Israelites. But the clincher came at the Red Sea. The sea parted for the Israelites and was the cause of death for the Egyptians.

Lest one think this might have been unfair, the author is clear that all the punishments fit the crimes. The Egyptians suffered because they had committed wicked acts. The most egregious was that they originally invited the Israelites to their country as their guests (during the time of Joseph) and then turned them into slaves. Nothing could have been worse. That violated every ancient law of hospitality (even though the author does not spell this out). In order to accomplish his plan, God enlisted all the elements of creation to do his bidding. That’s why the sea opened, the creatures invaded the land, and manna fell from heaven. The book ends on a high note: “In everything, O Lord, you have exalted and glorified your people, and you have not neglected to help them at all times and in all places.” 

Audience
So who was this book written for? There are several possibilities. The first suggests that the audience was being persecuted – possibly under Ptolemy or the Romans. This would most likely have been observant Jews.

Another group might have been those Jews that were facing a crisis of culture. Because Hellenization had been effective and productive, Jews found themselves in a minority position. This Book of Wisdom would have provided encouragement and a renewed commitment to their ancestral traditions.

A third group might have been Gentile readers. Some of them could have been thoughtfully assessing the problem of idolatry and possibly considering worshiping the one God. Many of these Gentiles would have been highly educated and well-versed in Greek philosophy. The author wanted to show the folly of worshiping impotent Greek idols.

Influence on Theology
This book was influential in several areas of theological development. Its use of wisdom as a personification of God was an important first step in understanding the person of Jesus Christ. Wisdom is a companion of God and an important intermediary between God and people. This Wisdom can only be achieved through prayer. It is through Wisdom that one knows what God requires. Another area was in the realm of immortality, which is understood as a gift from God. It is not a fully developed treatise, though, because at various times immortality seems to be granted upon death; at other points, it appears at the final Judgment. The Book’s polemic against idolatry, however, is very clear. Thought would continue to evolve in these areas throughout the formation of the New Testament.

Outline
There are roughly five sections to this letter: 

  1. 1:1-5:23 – The Promise of Immortality;
  2. 6:1-9-18 In Praise of Wisdom;
  3. 10:1-12:27 Divine Wisdom in History;
  4. 13:1-15:19 The Evils of Idolatry;
  5. 16:1-19:22 The Pattern of Divine Justice.

Note – throughout the Bible and ancient texts, wisdom is portrayed as a feminine quality. Thus, the pronouns “she” and “her” are used when describing wisdom.

 

I – 1:1-5:23 – The Promise of Immortality

   
1:1-15  

Exhortation to love justice

  • Love justice and set your mind upon the Lord
    • Justice means what is right, just, and normal
      • It is used to describe actions of both God and man
    • The Lord will be found by those who trust in Him
  • Dishonesty cuts one off from the Lord
  • Wisdom will not enter a shifty soul – one that acts fraudulently and tries to deceive
    • She is devoted to man’s good and will aid man in his search for her
  • God sees everything, hence no man can utter injustice and not be found out
    • God’s final intention is for man to live, not die
1:16-2:9  

Life of the ungodly

  • Godless men, both in words and deeds, associate themselves with death
    • Because the ungodly see nothing beyond the grave, they believe they should live this life to the fullest without regard for what they leave behind
      • They want the good things that are at hand
2:10-24  

Oppression of the weak and the righteous

  • The godless say: “Down with the poor and honest man!”
    • The just man stands in their way
      • He is a living condemnation of their lifestyle
  • The just man boasts that the just die happy and are children of God
    • How can the godless put that belief to the test?
      • By tormenting them now and watching to see what God will do (This probably reflects the persecution of righteous Jews)
  • Unfortunately, the ungodly have no concept of God’s plan
    • They do not understand man’s true destiny
    • God has created man for immortality
     
3:1-9  

Life belongs to the righteous

  • The ungodly can see the suffering of the righteous and think it is punitive
    • Yet the righteous are in God’s hand and torment cannot touch them
  • They might look as though they are dead
    • Yet they are at peace; they have the sure hope of immortality; they are blessed
  • They will be judges and rulers over the nations of the world
    • God is their king; they are His chosen
     
3:10-19  

Punishment belongs to the ungodly

  • The ungodly took no account of justice and rebelled against God
    • As a result, their lives are wretched
      • This is as it should be
    • (Some of this is intended to counter the idea that children and long life were proof of God’s blessings)
    • Their children are criminals; their parenthood is under a curse
      • In this situation, a barren woman and an eunuch are the most blessed
    • Honest work produces good fruit and roots of wisdom
      • But the godless are like fruit that never ripens and comes to nothing
  • Even if these people have a long life, they will be without honor and have no hope
    • They have a hard fate in store for them
4:1-20  

The good man is virtuous

  • For the righteous, even if they are childless, they are virtuous
    • Their virtue held in remembrance is a kind of immortality
      • Their names will be remembered by God
  • Even if they die an untimely death, they will be at rest
    • It’s not how long one lives, but one’s level of understanding that matters
    • Sometimes the good die early as a protection against having to live among sinful men before their minds can be perverted
  • In contrast, those who are perverted will be dishonored and an object of contempt forever
    • They will be laughed to scorn and all memory of them will perish
5:1-23  

Contrast between the just and ungodly in the moment of judgment

  • The day of reckoning will come
    • The unjust will try to justify their mockery of the righteous
      • Now the tables will be turned – they will admit that they have been “fools”
      • The unjust will acknowledge they did not use the aids for truth
      • They went down their own paths, wandering through “trackless deserts”
  • Because they spent all their lives in wickedness, they left no token of virtue
  • In contrast to the ungodly, the just will live forever under God’s protection
  • They will share the kingdom and be crowned with righteousness
  • God will make these decisions and those decisions will be final
  • All of creation will stand before the wicked and join in battle against them
  • God will marshal natural forces to attack them
    • If left unchecked, the world would be desolate because of the wicked

II – 6:1-9-18 – In Praise of Wisdom

     
6:1-11  

Rulers should learn wisdom

  • They rule by virtue of God’s authority and have an obligation to be good rulers
  • Some are not good now – they have not been upright nor did they stand up for the law
    • God will descend upon them; judgment will fall relentlessly
    • In contrast, the small man might find pity and forgiveness
  • The powerful will be powerfully called to account
    • To those who have more, more will be asked of them
  • Those in power should not go astray; then they will have a defense
6:12-21  

Divine wisdom is God’s agent

  • Wisdom can be found by those who search for her
    • She makes herself known to those who desire knowledge of her
    • Searching for wisdom does not make one weary
  • Wisdom is searching for those who are worthy of her
    • She meets them half-way
  • What is important is a desire to learn and to have love for her                                
  • Rulers who want to rule must honor wisdom; they will reign forever
6:22-25  

Transition passage

  • What is wisdom?  How did she come into being?
    • The author will reveal her beginnings (though he doesn’t get around to this)
    • He will tell the truth about her
  • His hope is that people will learn what he has to teach them
    • It will be for their own good
7:1-14  

Solomon was a mere man

  • This passage is all first person, as though Solomon were speaking to the reader
  • He had a normal birth, just like any other person
    • He was a descendant from Adam – a mortal from his mother’s womb
  • But then he began to pray for prudence
    • In answer to his prayer, he was given the spirit of wisdom
      • This he valued above all else – more than any riches or precious stones
  • All good things came to him because of her
    • He was given untold wealth – all for his enjoyment
  • He now wants to share what he has learned
    • He is a perfect steward of all that he has been given
  • Those who profit by wisdom become God’s friends
7:15-22  

The king gained knowledge through wisdom

  • He hopes to be worthy of God’s great gift
    • Even wisdom is under God’s direction
    • God gave him an understanding of things as they are
      • This includes how the world operates as well as the nature of animals
      • He understood the force of the wind and the thoughts of men
  • All these things were known to him through the teachings of wisdom
  • Wisdom was with God when He created all
7:23-8:1  

The attributes of wisdom

  • Wisdom has a long list of qualities – twenty-one are listed (3 x 7)
    • She pervades and permeates all things because she is pure
      • Despite all these qualities, her true nature remains elusive
    • Nothing defiled can enter her
    • She makes all things new – and makes them God’s
    • She is more radiant than the sun
    • She spans the world in power from end to end
      • She is, however, never portrayed as independent from God
8:2-16  

The king desires wisdom as his bride

  • He fell in love with her when he was young and desired her for his bride
    • Wisdom lived with God and belonged to him
    • She can then teach man all she knows from God
      • So he determined to have her as his bride
      • That would ensure his receiving the attributes that were highly praised
      • In this he was acting as a very wise man
      • He will, then, be a good ruler over many through wisdom’s influence
      • At home, wisdom will give him rest and companionship
  • (There is obviously no real assessment of Solomon’s life in these passages)
8:17-21  

The king prays for wisdom

  • The king thinks about all the benefits associated with wisdom and decides to go for it
    • He went about in search of some way to win her for his own
  • Then he realized he could only gain possession of her by God’s gift All he could do was pray
     
9:1-18  

Solomon’s prayer for the gift of wisdom

  • First he addressed God and stated his petition
    • In order to be the best he can be, he needs wisdom
  • God chose him to be king and to render judgment – for that he needs wisdom
  • He realizes that no man can learn God’s plan without wisdom
    • Man is so limited and in dire need of wisdom

III – 10:1-12:27 – Divine Wisdom in History

     
10:1-21  

The story of wisdom and God in history

  • Wisdom was there when Adam fell and gave him strength to master all things
    • She was there in the Cain story and the flood
    • She played a pivotal role in the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah
    • She was with Jacob through his trials with Esau and Laban
    • She was also with Joseph through all his escapades
    • She was with Moses at the Red Sea when the waters parted
  • She has always been the active principle of good – leading, saving, and loving
  • After the crossing of the Red Sea, the Israelites sang God’s glories for wisdom taught them how to speak
11:1-14  

The role of wisdom in the wilderness

  • Working through Moses, wisdom brought them success in all they did
  • There are contrasts between Israel (with wisdom) and Egypt (without wisdom)
    • Israel got water out of rock; Egypt’s water turned to blood
      • Once the people understood this, they saw it as evidence of God’s hand
    • Egypt rejected Moses; the Israelites saw him as the object of their wonder and admiration
11:15-12:1  

Punishment for worshiping animals

  • God could have wiped out the Egyptians with one blow
    • Instead, he sent a swarm of creatures to chastise them
    • God orders all things by weights and measures and numbers
  • Despite God’s great strength, He is merciful to all men
    • It is God’s desire that all men be brought to repentance
      • Why else would He have created all this?  And why would it endure?
  • God spares all things because they are His
    • His breath is in everything
12:2-18  

God is just and merciful

  • God wants people to leave their evil ways and put their trust in Him
    • The ancients had many loathsome habits and would not give them up
      • For that they were displaced and the land was given to those who were worthy
    • Even in that, the ancients were wiped out slowly – giving them every opportunity for repentance
      • God’s decision, however, is firm
      • Who is there to plead their case before God?  No one. 
      • There is only one God
      • Yet, God’s judgment is always just and right
      • He judges with mercy and rules with great forbearance
    • He is all powerful
12:19-27  

Mercy and judgment

  • Israel should learn from God’s example
    • God prefers mercy to judgment, repentance to punishment
    • Wisdom does as well
      • Man is to learn from this and try to emulate these same qualities
  • If God shows such care towards pagans, how much more will He care for the Israelites
    • God might chasten those He loves, but He will scourge His enemies
    • The Egyptians were prime examples
      • Even though they finally acknowledged God, they refused to release the Israelites
    • Refusing to acknowledge God leads to suffering and death

IV – 13:1-15:19 – The Evils of Idolatry

     
13:1-9  

Nature worship is foolish

  • People who look at nature should see the power of God behind it
    • Worshiping nature is for fools
  • If they are awed by the beauty or power of nature, how much more should they be awed by the one who created all of it
    • Seeing the beauty of created things gives an idea of their creator
  • If people have an appreciation for nature, it’s hard to believe they don’t get this
    • Some might still be searching for wisdom, when in fact it’s all around them
     
13:10-14:14  

The worst is worship of idols

  • The really degraded ones worship the product of men’s own hands – formed idols
  • Imagine a carpenter felling a tree
    • He uses most of it for a needed vessel
    • The scraps are used for firewood
    • But maybe one piece is bigger, so he carves it into some human form
    • Then he fixes a shrine upon the wall and places the form in it
      • He might have to nail it to the wall to make sure the form doesn’t fall over
    • Then he starts to pray to that “form” that can’t even stand by itself
      • He asks for help from something that needs help for itself
      • How ridiculous is that!
  • Then the man decides to go on a voyage
    • He pleads to the wood that is more fragile than the boat he is on
      • At least the ship was the product of human design; the idol was leisurely carved
      • The man built the ship, but God provides guidance for it
    • The purpose of the ship is good
      • God’s ideas should come to fruition
      • Wisdom makes that happen
  • Speaking of boats reminds the author of Noah and his sons
    • His ship was blessed; carved idols receive no such blessing                                 
      • Those who call perishable idols gods are hateful to God
      • Both the doer and the deed shall be punished
  • Even though the idols are also part of God’s creation, they have been made into abominations
    • They cause men to stumble by trusting something that has no worth of its own
    • The invention of idols is the root of immorality
      • They did not exist from the beginning and will not last forever
      • Only God is preexistent and eternal; idols are transitory
14:15-31  

The origin of idolatry

  • How did this all get started?
    • Possibly some father (long ago) made an image of his son that had passed away
    • He honored this image in his house, which included rituals and ceremonies
    • After much time had passed, this practice was observed as a law
  • Another option is that idols were made to represent images of princes of the land
    • People who could not express their appreciation in person made an idol image
    • Because people wanted to please the prince, they made the idol “perfect”
    • Eventually, people forgot the prince behind it and worshiped the idol
  • From there it got out of hand
    • People built up all sorts of rituals and ceremonies – most of them unnatural
    • All is chaos – long list of travesties
    • Men indulge themselves to the point of madness or live dishonest lives
    • They perjure themselves because the idols they trust are lifeless
    • In their devotion to idols, they have thought wrongly about God
    • In their contempt for religion, they have perjured themselves
  • Hence, judgment is inevitable and it will be deserved
15:1-6  

Israel is different from idol worshipers

  • Israel’s God is kind and true and merciful
    • Even if they sin, they acknowledge God’s power
    • They are forever His children
  • To follow His righteousness and to know His power is the root of immortality
  • Israel has not fallen for the human inventions known as idols
  • It is only fools that are in love with evil and deserve nothing better than worthless idols
15:7-19  

Idol makers are fools

  • The potter that makes useful vessels (pots) can also make useless ones (idols)
    • The potter himself was created; now he thinks he can create
    • Instead of thinking about his own salvation, he competes for the best idol
      • He thinks life is a game; who cares how he makes his living
      • Yet, he knows what he is doing is wrong
  • The greatest offenders, however, are those who oppose God’s people
  • They worship idols that can’t see or think or hear or breathe
    • The idols have to be carried from place to place
  • The people who make them are actually superior to the idol they’ve made
    • At least they are alive; an idol never will be
  • Some of these people worship animals too
    • (This is a possible reference to the Egyptians who worshipped animals)
    • Animals are both revolting and unintelligent

V – 16:1-19:22 – The Pattern of Divine Justice

     
16:1-14  

More on animals

  • God can use creatures for good or destruction
    • Swarms of vermin tormented the Egyptians; quail fed the Israelites in the desert
    • When God’s people were attacked by snakes, they were given a method of salvation to remind them of God’s law
      • In contrast, the Egyptians received no salvation; they all died
    • The irony is that the Egyptians were killed by animals that don’t necessarily kill; the Israelites survived animals that were known for killing
      • (In making this claim, the author tweaks OT texts to his liking)
  • God’s mercy comes to the aid of His people
    • The power of life and death belongs to God
16:15-29  

God’s use of the elements

  • God can use the elements for good or for destruction
    • Godless men were tormented by rains, storms, and fire
      • In contrast, the Israelites were fed by miraculous means (manna)
    • Creation exerts its power to punish the godless and show benevolence to the just
    • God’s people know their true sustenance comes from God
      • It is not crops but God’s word that sustains them
17:1-18:4  

God’s use of darkness

  • This reference to the ninth plague reminds readers that the darkness only affected the Egyptians
    • The Egyptians were prisoners of darkness for three days
    • At first, they might have thought they could use the darkness to hide from God
      • But they were too terrified and separated from each other
      • Not even Pharaoh’s best sorcerers could dispel the darkness
      • As the darkness settled in, they were all convicted by their own consciences
      • Their sleep was haunted; their fear was rampant
  • In contrast, the world of the Israelites was filled with light
    • Afterwards, the Egyptians showered the Israelites with gifts
      • They were elated the Israelites had not punished them in kind
    • God’s response was to send the Israelites a pillar of fire
    • What had happened to their enemies was justified and well deserved because they had tried to deprive the world of the light of the law
18:5-25  

God’s hand in death

  • The Egyptians planned to kill all the Israelite male children; instead they lost their firstborn sons
    • The Israelites had been warned in advance
      • They offered sacrifices in secret and vowed to keep the law of God
    • The Egyptians all suffered equally – master as well as slave
      • After this happened, they confessed God as father of the Israelites
  • God’s hand swept through the city in the silence of night
    • The godly had their own problems with death in the wilderness, but this was again instructive
      • God’s wrath was short-lived
      • A righteous man (Aaron) stepped forward by subduing the avenger
        • He was acting in his role as priest
      • He did not prevail because he was strong; he prevailed through his words
        • He represented the twelve patriarchs
        • On his diadem were the words: “Holy to the Lord”
    • All this was to demonstrate the power of God against the enemy of the godly
19: 1-21  

God at the Red Sea

  • The godless, of course, changed their minds after the Israelites left and pursued them to the shores of the Red Sea
  • Fresh off the pain of losing their firstborns, the Egyptians made another bad decision
    • They needed more reminders of God’s power
  • The Israelites would begin their journey; the Egyptians would end theirs
    • All of God’s creation was pressed into service to preserve His people
    • Upon seeing the parting of the sea, the people praised God
  • For their part, the Egyptians were punished for their wickedness
    • Originally, they had treated the Israelites (strangers) with hospitality
      • Then they turned against them and made slaves of those who were their guests
    • There is a special judgment for those who do this
  • So God combined the elements in an orderly way
    What happened at the Red Sea was God’s miracle
19:22  

God helps everyone

  • God is constantly advocating for His people
    • He will make them great in every time and place
    • If God could help the Israelites when they were in Egypt, He can certainly help the Israelites now
 

Thus ends this book of wisdom. The author has tried to make Biblical traditions relevant to the Jews in new situations. He realizes that they live in a secular culture and how difficult it is for them to maintain their culture. So his intention was to highlight God’s concern for man. He used wisdom teachings to make known deep truths about God as revealed in Bible stories and texts. His main point was to press the validity of Jewish faith for contemporary times. It is an ongoing issue for persons of faith in every age.

   
 

Bibliography

  • Clarke, Ernest. “The Wisdom of Solomon.” The Cambridge Bible Commentary. Cambridge, Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. 1973.
  • deSilva, David. Introducing the Apocrypha. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.2002.
  • Harrington, Daniel J. Invitation to the Apocrypha. Grand Rapids, MI: William B Eerdmans.1999.
  • Meeks, Wayne, ed. The Harper Collins Study Bible. San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins Publishers.1993.
  • Mills, Watson and Richard Wilson, Eds. “Deuterocanonicals/Apocrypha.”  Mercer Commentary on the Bible. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. 1995.
  • Winston, David. “The Wisdom of Solomon.” The Anchor Bible. New York, NY:Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing. 1979.
   
 
Mary Jane Chaignot earned her Master's Degree in Old and New Testament from Luther Seminary in MN.
   
 
   
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