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Each year we endeavor to highlight new information related to the Passion Chronology. This year we are introducing a debate on the question: Which day might the crucifixion have taken place? Some argue for Wednesday, others for Thursday; for centuries, the Christian world has argued in favor of Friday. To help shape your own view, take a look at the comments from Rev. Jim Jones and BibleWise Scholar Mary Jane Chagnoit.

Enjoy using these resources as you walk through the final days leading up to Jesus’ resurrection. The blue links take you to additional explanations about those specific events, too long to include on the chart.

The Passion Week - Chronology of Events (2014)

 
 Printable Version of The Passion Week 
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  • Two months before the Passover, Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead. At that point, Jesus as well as Lazarus became marked men. The chief priests and Pharisees wanted to kill both of them. (John 11:18-57)

  • While Jesus knew he was to die on the cross eventually, this wasn't the "appointed" time for the Pharisees and Scribes to put him to death. He stayed away from Jerusalem until the time of the Passover.

  • The road to the resurrection begins six days before Passover. (John 12:1) That would make it Friday and not Sunday, as others suggest.

  • Each event is listed in the appropriate Gospel, so you can go back and refresh yourself with the story.
 
Friday
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Jesus arrives in Bethany;
26:6-13
14:3-9
 
12:1-11

Dinner at Simon's house

  • John has Jesus staying in Bethany with Lazarus, Mary, and Martha. Matthew and Mark have him dining at the house of Simon the Leper. Edersheim bridges this difference by suggesting that Simon may have possibly been Martha's husband or the father of Lazarus, Mary, and Martha. Hence, Edersheim suggests that they were all in the same house.

Mary anoints Jesus

  • The ointment Mary used on Jesus' head and feet cost about 300 dinars, a year's salary of a laborer.

    • Two hundred dinars is the amount Philip told Jesus they would need to buy bread for the 5,000 men, women, and children.
 Saturday

Nothing recorded, but where else would Jesus be on the Sabbath?

 Sunday
  • On the way to Jerusalem - Jesus asks Peter and John to go to Bethphage and bring him a colt of a donkey that had never been ridden.
    • Bethphage means house of figs. It also refers to a species of late season figs that never appear ripe, even when they are edible. 1
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem
21:1-11
11:1-11
19:29-44
12:12-19
  • Riding on a colt was a statement of meekness. The people expected the Messiah to arrive more majestically. In short, it was the meekness of majesty, which was manifested, entering the city with royal authority.

    • Think of the thoughtfulness of Jesus in having the mother accompany the colt - no separation anxiety for mother or colt. The Master doesn't overlook any details.

  • The date of the triumphal entry into Jerusalem corresponds with the tenth day of Nisan - the day on which the paschal lamb was chosen for sacrifice and separated from the flock for the Passover meal later in the week. 2 Look for the pattern of reasons why Jesus waited until the week of the Passover. Note the symbolism alludes to the Lamb of God being set aside for sacrifice.

  • The palm branches were used not only to wave in praise and jubilation, but also to keep the dust settled by placing them on the ground since people were out in force to sing "Hosanna in the highest…peace in heaven and glory in the highest."

  • There is an interesting contrast between the multitude of the heavenly host at Jesus' birth singing "Peace on earth" and this earthly group singing "Peace in heaven."

  • The people were singing the Passover Psalm, which they would sing in a few days, that refers to the Messiah. 3

  • Jesus planned his entry as a counter procession to the Roman entry on the West side of the city. Jesus entered from the East.

Returned to Bethany

Monday
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Barren fig tree
21:18-19
11:12-14
  
  
Second cleansing of the Temple
21:12-17
11:15-19
19:45-48
  
  • The guilty fled, but the blind and lame stepped forward to be healed.

Jesus and his disciples returned to Bethany.

  • Barclay shows us where Jesus got his strength. "Before he joined battle with men he sought the presence of God. It was only because each day he faced God that he could face men with such courage." 4
Tuesday
This was the last day of Jesus' public ministry and his last day in the Temple. He arrived early in the city and didn't leave for Bethany until late that night. Some scholars refer to this as the day of controversy and others as the day of rejection. It was both. 5
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Fig tree withered
21:20-22
11:20-26
  
  
  • The fig tree represented the barrenness of Jerusalem.
  • Peter points out the fig tree is withered. Jesus responds with, “Have faith in God.” Jesus gives his disciple a lesson on prayer that includes instructions on forgiveness. The disciples are going to have to rely on prayer and forgiveness to get through the next few days.
Jesus' authority is challenged
21:23-27
11:27-33
20:1-8
  
  • The chief priest, the scribes, and elders were waiting for Jesus. They wanted to find out by what authority he could whip the money changers out of the Temple. This was a trick question. If Jesus responded by saying that he had the authority to do it, they would just arrest him for megalomania. If he responded that his orders were from God, they would arrest him for blasphemy. Jesus read their motive as if it were posted on a billboard. He agreed to answer their question if they would answer his first. He asked them whether John the Baptist's work, in their opinion, was human or divine. If they replied divine, then they would have to accept Jesus as the Messiah, because that was the basis of John's preaching. If they said human, then the people who followed John would undoubtedly riot. They had to admit they didn't know. It was the responsibility of the Sanhedrin to know the difference between true and false prophets and they had to shamefully admit they didn't know. Thus, Jesus didn't need to answer their question.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Parables of watchfulness
to the nation:
       

   Of two sons

21:28-32
     

   Vineyard of the    wicked
   husbandmen

21:33-46
12:1-12
20:9-19
 
   Marriage of king's    son
22:1-14
     
  • All three of these parables indict the Jewish leaders. In the parable of the two sons, the Jewish leaders represent the unsatisfactory son, who did not do his father's will. They are the wicked husbandmen in the next parable. And lastly, they are the condemned guests at the king's feast.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
3 questions by Jewish parties:
22:15-40
12:13-34
20:20-40
 
  • The Jewish leaders take aim at Jesus, expecting to discredit him in front of the same audience.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
   Tribute to Caesar        
  • The Pharisees asked if it was lawful to pay tribute to Rome. If Jesus said it wasn't lawful, they would just report him to the Roman authorities and wipe their hands clean of the matter. If he said it was lawful, the Jews would reject him because God was their only King. His questioners knew he was in a no-win situation. Jesus asked whose image was on the coin. When they replied Caesar, he told them to give back to Caesar the things that were Caesar's, but give to God what belongs to Him.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
   Resurrection        
  • The Sadducees, who don't believe in resurrection, asked him who this woman who was widowed and remarried seven times would belong to in the resurrection. Jesus points out how clueless they are in understanding the scriptures. You can't think of heaven in the same way you think of life on earth. Heaven is not a continuation of this world. So their question is irrelevant.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
   The Great
   Commandment
       
  • Matthew tells the story as though the lawyer is continuing the tirade against Jesus. Mark sees it differently. He describes the lawyer showing appreciation for Jesus' routing of the questioners. Jesus simply states the two commandments as they are listed in Deut. 6:5 - loving God with all your heart, soul, and might, and Lev. 19:18 - loving your neighbor as yourself.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Jesus' irrefutable question about Christ
22:41-46
12:35-37
20:41-44
 
Denunciation of Scribes and Pharisees - eight woes
23:1-39
12:38-40
20:45-47
 
  • The whole thrust behind the "woes" was to point out to the Scribes and Pharisees the fact that life wasn't about them, but about God. Our lives should direct people to God, not to us personally.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Widow's mites  
12:41-44
21:1-4
 
Greeks (Gentiles) seek Jesus      
12:20-36
  • The Gentiles asked Jesus to be their teacher.6 This was an opportunity to escape death. Jesus replied: John 12:27,28 (to .) Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour. Father, glorify thy name.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Rejection of Christ by Jews      
12:37-50
Jesus foretells destruction of the Temple
24:1,2
13:1,2
21:5,6
 
Olivet discourse in "code"
24:3-25:46
13:3-37
21:7-38
 
   Destruction of
   Jerusalem
       
   Signs of Christ's
    Coming,
       
    Last Judgment        
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Parables of warning:        
   Fig tree and
   young leaves
24:32,33
13:28,29
21:29-31
 
   Household and
   porter watching
 
13:34-36
   
   The ten virgins
25:1-13
     
   The talents
25:14-30
     
  • These parables highlight the importance of watchfulness and action: household and porter; the ten virgins; and the talents. To read the signs of the times, you need to be alert. A thief doesn't send you an announcement of his arrival: his weapon is surprise. All the virgins had lamps. The foolish just had a different expectation of when they would buy or borrow oil. When Jesus speaks of talents, he is letting his disciples know they had better use the knowledge the Master has given them.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Description of Last Judgment
25:31-46
     
Conspiracy of chief priests and Judas
26:1-5,14-16
14:1,2,10,11
22:1-6
 
Wednesday

The record is silent. A day of rest and prayer.
Thursday
[6:00-9:00 p.m.]
       
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Last Supper:
26:17-35
14:12-31
22:7-38
13-17
   Observance of
   Passover,
       
  • In Moses' Passover in Egypt, death was merely avoided. In the Passover Jesus celebrated, death wasn't avoided: it was confronted and conquered for all mankind.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
  Washing of disciples'   feet      
13:1-20
  • A lesson in true greatness. Love is always willing to serve. Jesus was purifying their footsteps. He let them know they didn't need to be afraid to take the first step in loving. To follow in Jesus' footsteps means to walk with love, act with love, talk with love. The service of love is a constant cleansing of one's walk and life.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
   Naming of betrayer 26:21-25 14:18-21 22:21-23 13:21-30
   Instituting of Lord's
   Supper
26:26-29 14:22-25 22:17-20  

The order of the last supper is in 13 steps [some books show more steps, others fewer steps, so this is a general guideline]

  1. The head of the company, Jesus in this case, opens with a prayer and
  2. Gives the 1st cup of wine for everyone in the company to drink.
  3. The head of the company washes his hands. This is where, it is believed, Jesus washed the disciples’ feet.
  4. The head of the company dips some of the bitter herbs into the salt water or vinegar and speaks a blessing, eats some of the herbs and hands them to the others.
  5. The unleavened bread is broken into pieces, reserving half to be eaten after the supper, called the after dish.
  6. The 2nd cup is filled and the youngest in the company (John) is instructed to ask questions about the significance of the Passover.
  7. Psalms 113 and 114 are sung.
  8. The 3rd cup of wine is filled, followed by prayer, and they all drink the cup.
  9. Everyone washes his hands.
  10. Supper begins by eating the unleavened bread and bitter herbs and the lamb. Everyone in the group must eat at least an olive size portion of the lamb. All of the lamb is to be consumed or destroyed. No bones of the lamb are to be broken.
  11. The after dish of the bread broken earlier is eaten. It is believed this is where Jesus said, “Take eat, this is my body.”
  12. The 4th cup of wine is the point when Jesus told them to all drink of it, this was his blood.
  13. Conclude with hymns and prayers. Psalms 115-118 and the Great Hallel – Psalm 136.
   Foretelling of Peter's
   denial
26:33-34 14:27-31 22:32-34 13:37-38
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Discourses:        
   Christ the way, truth,
   life,
     
14: 1-15
   Promises the
   Comforter
     
14:16-31
   The vine and the
   branches
     
15:1-27
   Jesus' going and
   returning
     
16:1-33
   Intercessory prayer      
17:1-26
This truly is the Lord’s prayer. Read the whole prayer. Verses 1-5, Jesus is talking about himself; verses 6-19 are for his disciples; verses 20-23 are for each of us. We didn’t get left out of that prayer. Verses 24-26 are the doxology.
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
[9:00-10:30 p.m.]
       
Jesus prayer in Gethsemane
26:30,36-46
14:26, 32-42
22:39-46
18:1
Betrayal and arrest
26:47-56
14:43-52
22:47-53
18:2-12
Healing of Malchus' ear    
22:51
 
Jewish ecclesiastical  trial:        
   Before Annas -
   11 p.m.
     
18:13-23
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
   Before Caiaphas
   and Sanhedrin
26:57-75
14:53-72
22:54-65
18:24-27
Friday
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Peter's Denial
26:69-74
14:66-72
22:54-65
18:25-27
Before Sanhedrin at daybreak
27:1,2
15:1
22:55-71
 
Judas hangs himself (Acts 1:16-20)
27:3-10
     
Most people believe that Judas hanged himself, per the account in Matthew. Luke has an interesting account in Acts when he says, Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. Acts 1:18 Some scholars contend that, in the process of hanging himself, he slipped and impaled himself on a sharp rock. Still others contend that Judas was murdered. We have no biblical account for the latter.
Roman civil trial        
   Before Pilate
27:2,11-14
15:1-5
23:1-5
18:28-38
    Before Herod
    (Antipas)
   
23:6-12
 
With Jesus being a Galilean, Pilate feared taking action since Galilee was out of his jurisdiction. Pilate sent Jesus to Herod Antipas. Herod could easily have saved Jesus. He wanted Jesus to perform a miracle or two and answer his questions, but Jesus didn’t do or say anything. Herod’s guards dressed him in a purple robe, pushed a crown of thorns into his head. They hit and spit on Jesus before leading him back to Pilate.
   Before Pilate
27:15-31
15:6-20
23:13-25
18:39-19:16
Crucifixion at Golgotha (Calvary)
27:32-56
15:21-41
23:26-49
19:17-37
Seven Last Sayings of Jesus:
27:46
15:34
23:34,
43, 46
19:26-28, 30
   1. Luke 23:34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.
   2. Luke 23:43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise.
   3. John 19:26,27 Woman, behold thy son! Then saith he to the disciple,
Behold thy mother!
   4. Matt 27:46



     Ps 22:1

And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? why art thou so far from helping me, and from the words of my roaring?

   5. John 19:28 After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.
   6. John 19:30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar,
he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.
   7. Luke 23:46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit:
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Darkness, earthquake;
Veil of the Temple is rent
27:50-54
15:33,38
23:44,45
 
Burial in tomb
27:57-61
15:42-47
23:50-56
19:38-42
Saturday
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Sealing of tomb, guard set
27:62-66
     
After the Sabbath (6:00 p.m.), Mary Magdalene and others purchase spices to anoint the body
 
16:1
   
Sunday
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
The empty tomb
28:1-8
16:2-8
24:1-8
20:1-10
Appearance to Mary Magdalene (article 1, article 2)
 
To the women
28: 9,10
 
24:9-11
 
Report of the guard
28:11-15
     
Appearance to the two disciples on the way to Emmaus
 
16:12,13
24:13-32
 
Luke records two people walking with Jesus. One was Cleopas, the other is unnamed. Scholars believe that, when there is no name, it was probably a woman. This may have been Cleopas’ wife.
Appearance to Simon Peter    
24:33-35
 
Appearance to company of disciples
(except Thomas)
 
16:14
24:36-43
20:19-23
Activity
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Next 40 days before ascension        
Appearances:        
   To disciples at
    Jerusalem; Thomas
    now convinced
     
20:24-31
   To seven disciples at
   Sea of Galilee; the
   seaside Morning
   Meal and the charge
   to Simon Peter: "Feed    my sheep"
     
21:1-24
   Instructions to
   Apostles and 500
   others on mountain
   in Galilee
28:16-20
16:15-18
   
The Disciples Fishing by Mary Ellen Dohr
To all of the Apostles    
24:44-49
 
Ascension Probably at Olivet near Bethany  
16:19
24:50,51
 
 

 

 

Sources
1 Robert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset, and David Brown. A Commentary. Grand          Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1993. Vol 3 p. 313
2 Ibid. 313.
3 Ibid. 315.
4 W m. Barclay. The Gospel of Mark. London: Westminster John Knox Press, 1975.          p. 269
5 Hester H.I. Hester. The Heart of the New Testament. Liberty: Quality Press, 1963.          p. 192.
6 Ibid. 192.
Barclay, Wm. The Gospels of John, vol 2; Luke, Mark, and Matthew vol 2, London:          Westminster John Knox Press, 1975.
Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Mclean, VA:          Macdonald Publishing, Co. 1883.
Hester, H.I. The Heart of the New Testament. Liberty, MO: Quality Press, 1963
Josephus, Flavius. Complete Works of Flavius Josephus. Grand Rapids: Kregel
          Publications, 1960.
Kee, Howard Clark, Eric Meyers, John Rogerson, & A. Saldarini. The
          Cambridge Companion to the Bible
. Cambridge: University Press, 1997.Borg, Marcus and John Dominic Crossan. The Last Week. San      Francisco,CA: HarperCollins, 2006.

   
   
 
   
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